A Brief History of Sanitation

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Toilets
Pict original Links : https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/9c/a2/9b/9ca29b0344aca0b56cd70b6fb66dcdef.jpg

I was in the middle of a journey in Tibet when suddenly my stomach hurts. It hurts so bad, then I woke up, I need to go to the restroom. This morning ritual never misses my day. I believe everyone does it too. But, does everybody have a restroom or something even close to a water closet? Wait, before answer that question I should’ve asked why we need it?

Long, long time ago The Babylonians discovered that contaminated water could cause diseases. So they brought in fresh water every day to prevent diseases. It was a big discovery in sanitation. For me, diseases are not even in my mind. I’d love it, especially when it’s clean, surrounded with a wall, no odor, and completed with a good air circulation. Thus, the water is easy to get, just lose a bit of my valve and there goes the water.

The Roman Empires made great progress in the area of sanitation. They built aqueducts to bring in fresh water, sewer systems, and, even more, they built public baths. The ancient civilization in the Indus Valley (3300 – 1300 BC) dam up their river and connect it to a lot of gigantic reservoirs. The people in Indus valley also built complex sewer systems which connected to each and every house to ensure proper dumping waste. They also built inspection holes for maintenance. Yet, That’s a rare thing to find here, in my neighborhood, in 2016. As the fall of their civilization, their wisdom is knowledge are gone too. Everyone back to primitive ways to do their morning rituals.

During the Middle Ages, the common folk dumped their waste right into the backyards and streets. Much of the time, the waste would flow into ground wells and city water supplies. On the contrary, The rich dumped their waste into open cesspools. It was in 1186, In the palace of the Holy Roman Emperor in Effurt, Germany, during a large gathering the floors collapsed and hundreds of the emperor’s guests fell into the cesspool and drowned in human excrement.

In London, 1854, Dr. John Snow investigated a disaster which swept through the Soho neighborhood. People died from cholera diseases. Then he interviewed the families of the victims. Nearly all of the victims drank water from a well on Board Street.

“Within two-hundred-and-fifty yards of the spot where Cambridge Street joins Broad Street, there were upwards of five hundred fatal attacks of cholera in ten days,”

Later, Snow discovered that the mother of a girl afflicted with cholera had dumped her daughter’s waste bucket into a leaking cesspool, only three feet from the Broad Street well. After that discovery, scientist began seeing the connection between infectious disease and human waste. Gradually by the late of the 1800s, the medical scientist came to believe that there had to be a dramatic separation between human waste and drinking water. In the late of 19th century, the science of sanitation improved by the development of the water closet and closed sewer systems.

Today, 90.4% of people worldwide had access to water and only 67.5% of people the world had access to basic sanitation.

Further reads:

http://washwatch.org/en/
https://www.academia.edu/5937322/Chapter_2_Sanitation_and_wastewater_technologies_in_Harappa_Indus_valley_civilization_ca._26001900_BC
http://www.vaclib.org/basic/history.htm
Hutchinson et all. The Sanitation revolution: The Innovation of Sewers and Indoor Plumbing in the 19th and 20th Centuries. <url=http://www.ayotte.com/files/Sanitation_Revolution.pdf>
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Tenniscoats: A Wonderful Sound

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Pict Link: http://img2-ak.lst.fm/i/u/770×0/d15383f60f184eb293689e9176337141.jpg

It was a cloudy afternoon in early 2016, where I trapped myself in a room for 3 days straight. There’s no other noise, but my music player. So after a couple of songs I turned off my music player. And it was pleasingly silent. My neighborhood just like empty houses while the only noise comes out from the morning sing ritual of kindergarten kids along the street. In that kind of silence suddenly I hear amazing tunes inside my head.

It’s a Japanese band called Tenniscoats.  I don’t even remember how I knew that band, but it’s a very sticky song that I couldn’t even stop playing. So the band consists of a man and a woman which from the first glance I guess they are the “real things”.

Baibaba Bimba

Well, I don’t even know what baibaba bimba means. I rarely played  Japanese songs too. But, this one is pretty amazing. In a moment, the Bimba magically locked up in my head. Her voice sounds so deep and sweet blended with their guitar notes. It’s not a fully cheerful song yet, it makes me smile every time I heard it. The song brings me back to the moment and reminds me of what it feels to miss something.

They played well with noises to fill their song. I looked up on different videos and the songs would be different too. The experimental things look so natural with them. It’s like they would use everything they see as a music instrument. That’s absolutely genius.

You can check these links to play their songs:

http://freemusicarchive.org/music/Saya/

 

 

 

Cerita Kopi, Perfekto dan Pengrajin

Akhir-akhir ini dunia perkopian lagi hype. Mungkin sudah basi dibicarakan kalo indo itu produsen besar perkopian di dunia. Mengapa tidak? tanah subur di mana-mana jek.

Kopi enak itu relatif. Selera tiap orang boleh berbeda. Yap, dari segi konsumen hal itu saya setuju saja karena walaupun selera berbeda-beda tetaplah biji kecil itu jadi penghubung jutaan-milyaran orang didunia dengan passion yang sama. Hal yang luar biasa menurut saya!

Dengan pegetahuan kopi yang menyebar semakin luas, preferensi konsumen menuntut kualitas kopi yang lebih tinggi. Dari situ, masing-masing warung kopi memiliki pendekatan yang berbeda.

Perfeksionisme

Si Perfekto sangat keras, brewing gagal – buang, roasting jelek – buang, biji somplak buang. Pefeksionisme bak pedang bermata dua, berbahaya dan mematikan. Jika eksekusi melenceng buyarlah semua usaha perfeksi kopinya. Jika perfek. senyum pelanggan tak dapat dihindari. lebih-lebih jika barista dengan senang hati berbagi passionnya dan kopi racikan sesuai selera pelanggan. Sungguh pengalaman  minum kopi yang luar biasa!

Pengrajin

Jika perfekto adalah minyak maka pengrajin adalah air. Pengrajin bukannya membuang yang tidak sempurna. Pengrajin membuat yang nol jadi satu, yang nihil jadi ada, yang bengkong jadi lurus. Perannya meningkatkan kualitas dari ladang. tidak terima jadi. pengrajin mengajak dan mengajarkan petani untuk meningkatkan kualitas. Pengrajin memberdayakan petani dengan sustainable relationship. Tp dengan itu, jangan harap kau nikmati tiap gelas perfekto di tempat pengrajin. Karena kualitas akan bertambah seiring waktu, dari nol jadi satu.

Lalu apa? Lalu ke mana tujuan, tuan?

Home Sweet Home

Rumah, merupakan satu kata dengan beribu makna. makna yang sangat personal bagi setiap-tiap orang. Kenangan tentangnya selalu membuahkan cerita manis dan kerinduan walau tak sedikit pula memori pait didapat di sana. Pulang. Mungkin pulang merupakan hal paling menyenangkan di dunia

tapi kemana kah itu? di manakah tempat yang kau tuju itu?

Good Music Part 2

In the part 1, I already told you about good music from my version. Here, I want to tell you some resources where I can find some remarkable songs.

Music Resources

Last.fm

Last.fm is a social media where you can find similar artists  of your favourite. You can also scrobble your songs on it. It’s great, many people use it and you can give or get recommendations from other users. You can also make groups so you can get along with people who has the same interest to you.

Postrockmusic.com

It’s a postrock radio stream based in turkey. If you like a lot of experimental instrumental music you probably will find yourself attached to this website.

Youtube

Yeah, YouTube is a great place to discover music. But, you may need a good keyword to find a band that you like. After you find one, you will get another in easy ways. I hope YouTube will have less advertisements because sometimes the advertisements play a lot longer than the video I’d like to watch.

Lately, I’ve watched a lot of KEXP, NPR, and Audiotree channel. You can also watch Coachella live stream here.

Jazzradio.com

It is amazing! I could not believe there is a radio stream like this. If you into jazz and blues you won’t have regrets to open this website. I  wonder how long they collected their playlist.

Friends / Local-based communities

Get off your ass and go out there. It’s always fun to get any recommendation from your friends. You can sing your favourite songs with them as hard as you can.